Friday, June 5, 2020
Implementation Examples Three examples of assemblers for real machines are: 1. MASM assembler 2. SPARC assembler 3. AIX assembler MASM Assembler The programs of x86 system views memory as a collection of segments. Each segment belongs to a particular class corresponding to its contents. The commonly used classes are: 1. CODE 2. DATA 3. CONST 4. STACK During program execution segments are addressed via an x86 segment register. In most cases: Code Segments are addressed using register CS. Stack Segments are addressed using register SS. * The loader automatically sets CS and SS when the program is loaded. CS is set to indicate the segment that contains the starting label specified by the Ã¢â¬ËENDÃ¢â¬â¢ statement of the program. * SS is set to indicate the last stack segment processed by the loader. * The programmer can specify explicitly the segment register to be used, else the assembler selects one. * Data segments are addressed using DS,ES,FS and GS. * By default the assembler assumes that all references to data segments use register Ã¢â¬ËDSÃ¢â¬â¢, but the following statement with the asse mbler directive ASSUME tells the assembler to assume that register ES indicates the segment DATAEG2. ASSUME ES:DATASEG2| * Thus any references to labels that are defined in DATASEG2 will be assembled using register Ã¢â¬ËESÃ¢â¬â¢. * It is also possible to group several segments together. The following instruction would set Ã¢â¬ËESÃ¢â¬â¢ to indicate data segment DATASEG2. MOV AX,DATASEG2MOV ES, AX| * BASE directive tells the SIC/XE assembler the contents of register Ã¢â¬ËBÃ¢â¬â¢/ * ASSUME directive tells MASM the content of a segment register. Jump instructions are assembled is two ways 1. Near Jump 2. Far Jump Near Jump * It is a jump to a target location in the same code segment. * Assembled instruction for NEAR JUMP is 2 or 3 bytes. Far Jump * It is a jump to a target location in a different code segments. * Assembled instruction for FAR JUMP is 5 bytes. Pass 1 of x86 assembler It is more complex than SIC as, operands has to be analyzed in addition to operation codes. Segments of MASM * Segments of MASM source program can be written in more than 1 part. * If a segment directive has a name as a previous defined segment, then it is said to be the continuation of that segment. The assembly process combines all the segments together. * These segments are similar to program blocks. * Assembler handles the references between the segments. * External references between separately assembled module is handled by the linker. MASM directives * MASM directive PUBLIC function is similar to EXTDEF. * MASM directive EXTRN function is similar to EXTREF. SPARC Assembler Sections * The SPARC assembly lang uage program is divided into units called sections. * The assembler provides a set of predefined section names, such as the following: . TEXT .DATA .RODATA .BSS The programmer can switch between sections at any time in the source program by using assembler directives. * The assembler maintains a separate location counter for each named section. Similarity between Section and program blocks * Each time assembler switches to different section, it also switches to the location counter associated with that section. In this way sections are similar to program blocks. Difference between sections and program blocks * References between different sections are resolved by the linker in the case of sections, and by the assembler in the case of program blocks. Symbols used in the program * Local symbol * Global symbol * Weak symbol Object file of SPARC * The object file written by the SPARC assembler contains translated versions of thee segments of the programs and a list of relocation and linking operations that need to be performed. * The object program also includes a symbol table that describes the global symbol, week symbol and section names. Delayed branch * SPARC assembler language branch instructions are delayed branches. * The instruction immediately following a branch instruction is actually executed before the branch is taken. AIX Assembler AIX assembler supports various models of PowerPC microprocessors as well as machines that implement the original POWER architecture. .MACHINE assembler directive * The programmer can declare which architecture is being used with the assembler directive . MACHINE. * PowerPC program that contains only instructions that are also in the original POWER architecture would be executable on either type of system. Base register * PowerPC load and store instructions use a base register and a displacement value to specify an address in the memory. Any register except GPR0 can be used as a base register. * Decisions about which registers to use are left to the programmer. * The programmer specifies which registers are available for use as a base register, and the contents of these registers, with the Ã¢â¬Å"USINGÃ¢â¬ assembler directive. Thus the statements .USING LENGTH, 1. USING BUFFER, 4| would identify GPR1 and GPR4 as the base registers. * GPR1 contains the address of the L ENGTH. * GPR4 would contain the address of BUFFER. If the base register is to be used later for some other purpose, the programmer uses the . DROP statement which Indicates that the register is no longer available for addressing purpose. Selection of base register * For each instruction whose operand is an address in the memory, the assembler scans the table to find a base register that can be used to address that operand. * If more than one register can be used to address the operand, the assembler selects the base register that results in the smallest signed displacement. If no suitable base register is available the instruction cannot be assembled. * AIX assembler language also allows the programmer to writ base registers and displacements explicitly in the source program. Dummy control section * AIX assembler provides a special type of control section called dummy sections Data items included in a dummy section do not actually become a part of the object program; they serve only to define labels within the section. * Dummy sections are most commonly used to describe the layout of a record or table that is defined externally. Table of Contents (TOC) * By using this assembler directive the programmer can create a table of contents(TOC) for the assembled program. * TOC contains the addresses of control sections and global symbols defined within the control sections. The two passes of an AIX assembler AIX assembler itself has two pass structures. Pass 1 * The first pass of the AIX assembler writes a listing file that contains warnings and error messages. * If errors are found during the first pass the assembler terminates and does not continue to the second pass. If no errors are detected during first pass the assembler proceeds to pass 2. Pass2 * The second pass reads the source program again, instead of using an intermediate file. It means that the location counter values must be recalculated during pass 2. * Any not serious warning messages that were generated during pass1 are lost. * The assembled control sections are placed into the object program. Relocation and Linking * Relocation and linking operati ons are specified by entries in a relocation table, which is similar to the modification record for SIC.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Autism spectrum disorders are a class of developmental brain disorders with symptoms that range widely with each affected individual. Autism is a disorder that varies in severity of social interaction and communication that can benefit from the help of different types of treatment. Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, autism, pervasive development disorder, and non pervasive developmental disorder are disorders on the autism spectrum with differing levels of intensity. Treatments for autism include medications, special diets, and psychological therapies. Although different types of treatments may work better for some individuals than others, you can combine treatments for the best results. The intensity and severity of symptoms vary amongÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Reducing certain proteins and adding particular vitamins into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s diet can also relieve associated illnesses that accompany autism such as epilepsy, attention deficit disorder, and autoimmune disorders. Gluten is a protein that can cause an incomplete breakdown that affects the transmission of neurons in patients with autism. The protein gluten is commonly found in wheat, rye, and barley that has been linked to negative effects on autism. This can include not only digestive issues, but hyperactivity and rashes. Going gluten free not only has been proved to reduce gastrointestinal distress, but can reduce behavioral problems associated with autism. Mercury has been questioned over a possible connection between the toxic metal and autism spectrum disorders. Although the link mostly results from mercury as an ingredient in vaccines, mercury is also found in certain types of seafood and in dental ama lgam. By following a mercury detoxification diet, it may reduce impairment in speech and motor functions, depression, and chronic pain. Eliminating mercury from the diet can cause an overgrowth of fungi and bacteria, so it is suggested that patients use an anti-yeast diet before attempting the mercury detoxification. The anti-yeast diet eliminates the fungus that can result in behavioral problems and physical symptoms. People with autism are more prone to infection whichShow MoreRelatedEarly Intervention is Crucial in Treating Autism Spectrum Disorder988 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshas autism spectrum disorderÃ¢â¬ are words no parent wants to hear. They are words that will instill fear, worry, and sadness. When parents hear this for the first time, they will have many questions. Ã¢â¬Å"Is there anything I can do to help my child? If so, what can be done?Ã¢â¬ Early intervention services; such as applied behavior analysis therapy, occupational therapy, sensory integration therapy , and speech therapy before the age of three; can help improve the development of children with autism spectrumRead More Genetics and the Possible Causation of Autism Spectrum Disorders1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespsychiatrist, began using the term Ã¢â¬Å"autismÃ¢â¬ , which stems from the Greek word Ã¢â¬Å"autosÃ¢â¬ , meaning Ã¢â¬Å"self.Ã¢â¬ Bleuler used the term to describe a group of symptoms seem in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Essentially, the term means an Ã¢â¬Å"isolated selfÃ¢â¬ or a person excluded from social interactions. In the 1940s, researchers in the United States modified the term to describe children who experienced emotional or social problems. Thus, relinquishing the word Ã¢â¬Å"autismÃ¢â¬ from its connection to schizophreniaRead MoreEssay On Sleep Disorders In Children With Autism1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTreating Sleep Disorders in Children with Autism Several studies have been conducted that take a look at treatments for children with autism suffering from sleep disorders. Sleep disorders may even be more common in children with autism spectrum disorders. Theres been countless of different types of treatments, but one treatment in particular is Melatonin. Melatonin helps control your sleep and wake cycles. Studies have shown that melatonin is promised in treating sleep and insomnia in childrenRead MoreThe Effect Of Telehealth On The Language And Communication Delays That Accompany Autism Spectrum Disorder ( Autism ) Essay1703 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespractices to treat or assess disorders via technology, such as video or webcams, rather than treating patients face-to-face. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may use this method to treat a variety of delays and disorders, including stuttering, apraxia, lisps, and others. This paper will explore the use of telehealth in treating the language and communication delays that accompany Auti sm Spectrum Disorder (autism), specifically in children. Autism Spectrum Disorder is Ã¢â¬Å"a complex developmental disabilityRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Autism ) Essay1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe disorders listed under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder, were once listed as autism and subtypes of autism. This was changed in 2013 when The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was published, and they were listed under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder. There are five disorders listed under the umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Autistic Disorder, AspergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Rett Syndrome and Pervasive DevelopmentalRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Autism )900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Autism Disorder Mohamed Ayoub Community College of Aurora Autism Spectrum Disorder We are living in a time where a remarkable and advanced medical treatments exist. However, scientists and medical professionals are constantly faced with diseases and disorders that contemporary humanity needs a cure and treatment. Amongst the disorders that affecting our young people today is the autism spectrum disorder. It is a Ã¢â¬Å"complex and life long behavioral disorder marked by impairment in socialRead MoreAsperger s Syndrome Among Other Autistic Spectrum Disorders1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesother Autistic Spectrum Disorders The autism spectrum disorder is neurobehavioral deterioration that involves language developmental disorder combined with low social interaction skills and repetitive behaviors. The severity of the disorder varies from mild, moderate, and severe, and the diagnosis tends to be changeable according to several factors such as the severity and the kind of therapy that the child received during early years. There is an increased prevalence of the disorder among childrenRead MoreIs Autism A Developmental Disorder? Essay1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesExploring Autism in Children Rutgers University Atypical Adolescence and Development Professor. Stevie McKenna November 2nd, 2016 Autism Abstract Autism is a developmental disorder in which an individual has problems with communication and interaction. Autism Spectrum Disorder was adopted as a categorization in 2013 and begins in childhood and follows throughout the course of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life and is actually a collection of developmental brain disorders. There isRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd ) Essay1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a range of conditions grouped under the neurodevelopmental disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) published in 2013 (Kress Paylo, 2015). Those who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder must present two types of symptoms: 1) Deficits in social communication and social interaction and 2) Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities (APA, 2013). The DSM-5 merged all autismRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd )1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComposition 1 Autism Spectrum Disorder Ã¢â¬Å"Autism is a neurological disorder. It s not caused by bad parenting. It s caused by an abnormal development in the brain. The emotional circuits in the brain are abnormal. And there also are differences in the white matter, which is the brain s computer cables that hook up the different brain departmentsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Temple GrandiÃ¢â¬ BrainyQuote.com. Xplore Inc, 2015. 30 April 2015. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/t/templegran451380.html. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Asperger s What is Asperger s syndrome (AS)? AS is a social disorder linked to autism which is often misdiagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because of their similar symptoms. The name comes from Hans Asperger, an Austrian that examined autistic children and used the term autism to identify them (Grinker 56). According to Bibbi Hagberg et. Al. , Approximately, 30Ã¢â¬â50 % of individuals with AS have symptoms (inattention and overactivity in particular) consistent with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research indicates individuals with AS may experience challenges with social interaction, coordination capabilities, and the ability to understandÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Examining the Benefit of Including a Sibling in Story-Based Interventions With a Child With Asperger Syndrome 180) CSCs are able to do this effectively because they require the individual to use his or her conversation skills as w ell as his or her visual strengths. (Examining the Benefit of Including a Sibling in Story-Based Interventions With a Child With Asperger Syndrome 180) some other things a CSC does include helping to identify any problems the individual with AS may be having and also helping him or her find appropriate solutions for those problems. (Examining the Benefit of Including a Sibling in Story-Based Interventions With a Child With Asperger Syndrome 180) Medication is another treatment for AS. Although medication cannot cure AS, it may help control some of the symptoms (particularly the ones that match up with ADD and ADHD) so that the individual with AS is able to function normally or at least as normal as is possible for the individual taking the medication. The downside of medication since every individual is affected differently is that it can take several months or sometimes even years to find a medication that works for a particular individual. On the upside, it is completely fine if one medication or the other does not work because just as there are many different types of people with AS there are also many different kinds of medication for people with AS. Group therapy is an AS treatment method a psychologist may use in order toShow MoreRelatedAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD which is often referred to as childhood hyperactivity, it s a severe and chronic disorder for children. It is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders, and affects 3% to 5% of the school-age population. Boys outnumber girls three or more to one. Children with ADHD can experience many behavioral difficulties that often manifest in the form of inattention, being easily distracted, being impulsive, and hyperactivity. As a result, children withRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesI chose to research Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, otherwise known as ADHD, in culture and child development for the following reasons. First, it is important as educators that we understand the difference between restlessness and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children. Secondly, we must be conscious of the origins of ADHD, how to recognize it, the myths and prejudices against it, and kn ow the most appropriate intervention strategies. Educators must also realize that evenRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoccasionally forget to do their homework, get fidgety when they lose interest in an activity, or speak out of turn during class time. But inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are all signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a neuro-development disorder and can start as early as three years old throughout adulthood. People with ADHD have trouble focusing on tasks and activities, this can have a negative impact on the individual in different ways. It can make the child feelRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract There are many disorders that are first diagnosed whether it is during infancy, childhood or adolescence. The disorders range from intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, communication disorders, all the way through to elimination disorders. Attention-deficit and disruptive disorders are the most common. All including AD/HD, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and unspecified disruptive disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most commonRead MoreAttention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1699 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshas had some difficulty sitting still, paying attention and even controlling impulsive behavior once or twice in our life. For some people, however, the problems that occur slim to none in our life occurs in the lives of theirs every day and interfere with every aspect of their life inclusive of home, academic, social and work. . The interaction of core ADHD symptoms with co-morbid problems and neuropsychological deÃ¯ ¬ cits suggests that individuals with ADHD are likely to experience problems in academicRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1259 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly found disorder in children in the United States. Statistics show that the male to female ratio for children with ADHD is eight to one. 4.4 million Children between the ages four to seventeen have diagnosed with ADHD (Cheng Tina L et al.). African American children are at a higher risk for having ADHD. Caucasian children are least likely to have ADHD. 2.5 million children receive medication for ADHD, but African American childrenRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1058 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfrom disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (or ADHD/ADD.) While much is known about these disorders and how they affect the education of children, there are only a few known methods that consistently help an affected child focus and target in on what they need to learn. Medication for children With Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder must be used as an aid to help the affected child to focus and comprehend information being presented to them. Children with Attention DeficitRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER Seth was a second grader at West Elementary. He constantly got reprimanded by his teachers for not paying attention in class. He could not understand the information given to him during the school day. He thought he was stupid and useless. But he was not. His parents got him tested by a doctor for ADHD. He is one of many kids in the United States who have been recognized as having it. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a major issue in the educationRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children since the 21st century. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the increase has been seen as a difference from, Ã¢â¬Å"7.8% in 2003 to 9.5% in 2007 and to 11.0% in 2011Ã¢â¬ (p. 4). Many questions arise concerning why the numbers are on the rise, especially when boys are 7.6 percent more likely than girls to receive the diagnosis of ADHD. When should the line be drawn between a disorder, and hyperactivity that comes withRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWhat is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects almost 10% of American children between 13 and 18 years old, as well as 4% of U.S. adults over 18. Only a licensed mental health professional can provide an ADHD diagnosis, after a thorough evaluation. ADHD has three primary characteristics: Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Inattentive: Are effortlessly distracted, fail to catch details, are forgetful, and regularly switch activities. Find it difficult to focus
Question: Discuss about the Human Resource Strategy for Implementation System. Answer: Introduction: The competitive world of today demands each company to be ahead of one another in the supreme race of staying or being at the top. The companies device many plans and strategies which help the organizations to reach the pinnacle of success, garnering much more productivity and profitability. The companies, in order to achieve the maximum level of productivity and profitability, often resort to many practices related to the management or the operations of the company. One of the most pivotal strategies of modifying a specific company in order to ensure maximum productivity and profitability is ensuring a good and healthy practice of keeping and nurturing a happy, competent and satisfied workforce (Cameron Green, 2015). This report analyses the case study the Wollongong Yard of the Top Trucking Company. The write up answers few specific questions about the case study that is provided. The report discusses how the new practices in the workplace that were introduced by the yard manager, complement each other, the risks that might be imposed on the yard if the new manager moves on and whether or not the unions are likely to engage in the changes in the workplace. How the new workplace practice introduced by the new manager complement each other? The Wollongong Yard of the Top Trucking Company brought in a new manager who implemented plans and strategies that was aimed at improving the ongoing, existing situation in the yard. The existing manager of the yard was extremely dictatorial and did not empathize with the employees even if they had a bad day. The new manager, when he was brought in as a replacement to the previous manager, implemented few rules and regulations and restructured the work ethics in a way that is beneficial for the employees and also for encouraging them to perform better. The new manager that was appointed at the yard, instilled new and innovative tactics so that the employees are happy and satisfied with their jobs, which can act as a catalyst for them to perform better. The new manager dealt with the problems quite skillfully. Whenever any problem arose, the new manager took a rational approach rather than an erratic one. He did not immediately blame the drivers for any mistake or error. He first supe rvised the ongoing situation and then logically arrived at a conclusion or solution to each problem. Managing talent in an organization is a sophisticated system of managing the human resources of the company to achieve the optimum level of productivity and profitability for the company (Fullan, 2014). Talent management is an integrated and long-standing approach for managing employees. This can be done by attracting the employees into the organization and by providing engagement and development opportunities with the help of a sophisticated system of HR application (Benn, Dunphy Griffiths, 2014). The new manager, kept this logic in mind while dealing with the employees of the organization. He improved the occupational health and safety of the employees in the business. The new steps that were introduced by the new manager complemented one another because the new practices that were introduced by the new manager were in the interest of the employees, which in turn worked for the benefit of the organization. The most significant roles and competencies of a HR professional of an organization rely on four pivotal sections (Baldwin, Bommer Rubin, 2012). They are analytical fact-based decision-making, leadership and conceptual ideas visioning, interpersonal teamwork and compliance to regulation and administration control. Under the guidance of the new manager, the drivers of the vehicles received training in customer service as well as the technical area. According to a professional HR survey, there are five major roles of HR in an organization. They are: The new manager took upon himself to anticipate and lead a change in the structure and operation of the organization. He valued the behaviour of the employees as well as the management more than knowledge. The new manager took more care of the employees, as he ensured proper occupational health and safety of the employees of the organization. According to the AHRI model of excellence, the HR should possess the capability of influencing the employees, which can alter the behaviors, actions and the opinions of the employees. Sustainable changes and its longevity If the new manager moves on, the yard will be facing few risks to sustaining the changes that were brought by the new manager. The risks to sustaining these changes if the new manager moves on are many. Some of them are that the existing order of peace and harmony that is at present existent in the yard might be disrupted and fall back to anarchy and other type of autocratic rule under the influence of another manager. The rules and regulations that were laid by the new manager run a risk of losing its sustainability under the reign of a new manager. The plans or the strategies that are implemented by the management of an organization must move beyond the task of developing the company (Human Resource Management in Australia, 2017). It should aim at creating an overall development and growth of the employees as well. The organization must involve planning, training and development, outsourcing, reassignment and flexibility to achieve an overall development of the organization. The ma nager of the yard transformed the organization, in this case, the yard quite efficiently with the proper handling of issues. The work attitude of the workforce of the organization is highly dependent on the environment and the atmosphere that prevails in the organization. The risks to sustaining the changes if the new yard manager or the union leader, George moves on, can create a great impact on the organization or the yard. The risks that the organization can face are: The union leader, George and the new manager both had an open point of view and were open to bringing about a change for the good in the company or the yard. If these two employee of the company happens to move on to a better and different workplace, then the sustainability of the rules and regulations and changes that was brought in by these two people, depends on how deep or ingrained the change has been implemented in the yard (Human Resource Management in Australia, 2017). The changes can sustain in the organization if they were implemented deep into the operation and management of the company. However, certain factors like the behavior of the management towards the employees or the union depends upon the new policies and strategies that the new management can implement. The changes that were implemented by the new manager were subjective and depended a lot on the individual manager. The individual manager like the new manager that implemented these changes had a precise and logi cal point of view in going about dealing with the employees. The manager took a logical point of view in going about dealing with the things. The manager dealt with the problem in a logical manner, considering the problems and the point of views of the employees. The employees of the yard, with the coming of the new manager and the implementation of the new set of rules, had a sigh of relief and could perform better. They could approach the management with any problems that they had. The new manager collaborated and worked efficiently with the labor union leader to bring in positive changes in the workplace (Human Resource Management in Australia, 2017). It also helped the manager to find out in details about the grievances of the truck driver, the suggestion and the feedback from the employees. The company and its employees performed much better with a healthy work environment with the advent and implementation of the new rules set by the new manager. The reception of changes by the union The tough blue-collar unions like the Transport Workers Union are more or less likely to engage in the workplace changes because the new changes that were implemented by the new manager saw a fresh and positive change in the working environment of the company or the yard. The new set of rules and regulations worked efficiently for the company or the yard. The tough blue collar unions are likely to engage in a change in the workplace than the public or service sector because the changes in the public or service sector is not that frequent as opposed to this sector. The changes that has to be brought about in the workplace can only be implemented with the cooperation of the union as well as the management. In this case, since the manager worked efficiently in collaboration with the union leader, the company and the employees could achieve the desired target. The employees too were receptive to the changes that were brought about in the company. The bad eggs among the drivers also led t o many conflicts in the company which led to many short strikes in the company despite the reluctance of the union leader, George. Many a times George was forced to agree with the point of view of those bad eggs despite him having a different point of view. Thus, it can be said that the blue collar union are like to engage in the changes in the workplace than the union in the public or service sector. This can be supported from the fact that the union in the yard, in this case, were more receptive towards the change and when they saw that the changes were brought about by the manager, worked for their betterment, they were more than happy to implement the changes. The employees of the yard were happy and satisfied with the changes that the new manager implemented. They were treated like responsible adults and not like children, which made them happy. These changes made the Wollongong Yard top the tables of key indicators of success for the various yards (Human Resource Management in Australia, 2017). References: Baldwin, T. T., Bommer, W. H., Rubin, R. S. (2012). Managing organizational behavior: What great managers know and do. Battilana, J., Casciaro, T. (2012). Change agents, networks, and institutions: A contingency theory of organizational change.Academy of Management Journal,55(2), 381-398. Benn, S., Dunphy, D., Griffiths, A. (2014).Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge. Cameron, E., Green, M. (2015).Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers. Cummings, T. G., Worley, C. G. (2014).Organization development and change. Cengage learning. Daley, D. M. (2012). Strategic human resource management.Public Personnel Management, 120-125. Fullan, M. (2014).Leading in a culture of change personal action guide and workbook. John Wiley Sons. Hendry, C. (2012).Human resource management. Routledge. Human Resource Management in Australia. (2017) (5th ed., pp. 169 - 170). Alewell, D., Hansen, N. K. (2012). Human resource management systemsa structured review of research contributions and open questions.Industrielle Beziehungen/The German Journal of Industrial Relations, 90-123. Bamberger, P. A., Biron, M., Meshoulam, I. (2014).Human resource strategy: Formulation, implementation, and impact. Routledge. Clegg, S. R., Kornberger, M., Pitsis, T. (2015).Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Sage. Goetsch, D. L., Davis, S. B. (2014).Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Storey, J. (2014).New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.
Sunday, April 19, 2020
A sharp gulp ceased to moisten my throat. Words seemed to blend together, appearing to me as foreign hieroglyphs. I stood alone, with this puzzling object: a book, trembling in my sweaty palms. A colony of hyenas remained in front of me, staring with their bulging eyes, mocking me with their grim smiles and giggles. I was not the best reader in my class; I would stutter at each line my eyes came across, stumbling andmumbling repeatedly. Yet, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give up, silly me. If I had, this torment wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have lasted nearly as long. These Ã¢â¬Å"booksÃ¢â¬ were always an intimidating conundrum to me. My father enjoyed a good audiobook, but, for the most part, I grew up in a bookless household. As a child however, listening to a monotoned voice humming meaningless words wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t an acceptable introduction to literature. I quickly learned that I was the odd one out in school: no classmate wished to befriend me, or even talk to me. We will write a custom essay sample on Up Until That Instant or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page School had become a place I viewed as a twisted alternate-reality with no escape. I relived the same torture day after day with nothing new or exciting to look forward to. Hopelessness washed over me. I would think: Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is the point of trying to even get out of bed in the morning, or even, living?Ã¢â¬â¢ Only eight-years-old, and I was diagnosed with depression and anxiety. My parents took notice of my developing (or rather decreasing) behavior, and determined I needed some extra-curricular activity to pursue: theater. They decided it was a fantastic idea to place an introvert into a crowd of extroverts. Ã¢â¬Å"Acting will be fun, and a new change for you!Ã¢â¬ My mother had exclaimed. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand what impact acting could make upon helping me comprehend these strange patterns in books. Reluctantly, I went to audition for a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s show. I happened to land a minute part with one or two lines, but as they say in the theater world, Ã¢â¬ËThere are never small parts, only small actors!Ã¢â¬â¢ A wrinkled, thick stack of papers was thrust into my hands. Strangely enough, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel panic when glancing through my used script. The pages seemed to come alive with colorful energy and playful vitality. As odd as it may seem coming from a shy young girl, I discovered an interest for reading plays, specifically ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s work. From King Lear to Twelfth Night (I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t particularly enjoy the sappy love story of Romeo and Juliet) I scanned each word and stored it in my mind like boxes in an attic. It felt as if I werenÃ¢â¬â¢t even reading, for the literaturedidnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem as frightening or forced as it did in classes. I realized that these characters symbolized a part of me I wanted to be; whether it was brave, amusing, intelligent or charming. Fast forward to eighth-grade. I hardly recall school during that blurry year, yet I do remember taking a creative writing class. A flock of irregular children pouring their imaginations out on paper. This was a new turn for me. Up to this point, IÃ¢â¬â¢d just read a script, act it out on stage, and enjoy the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s positive reaction. Whereas in that class, IÃ¢â¬â¢d write short stories that took place in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s or the 2070Ã¢â¬â¢s. IÃ¢â¬â¢d proceed to read them in front of these wide-eyed owls as theyÃ¢â¬â¢d hoot and holler at me. I do not believe they were really listening to my stories, they just liked to be obnoxious. Despite my efforts to excel in reading and writing, nothing seemed to work. I was barely passing Creative Writing, let alone English. But being who I am, I pushed myself to the limit. Ninth and tenth grade I took Honors English and eleventh and twelfth grade I pursued Advanced Placement courses. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the best, but I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the worst. Perhaps it was result of me continuously taking theater courses, acting at a local theater, and performing for pure sport. It kept me sane, content, and focused. That was all I excelled in, but I wanted more, I wanted to be the one that was looked up to instead of being laughed at. While I continued slaving away with creative writing and AP, I took a job teaching childrens acting classes. Handing them a script was like passing on a baton. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢d look up at me, staring blankly like a deer in headlights, asking me Ã¢â¬Å"Why is this in parenthesis?Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"How come these letters are slanted and not normal?Ã¢â¬ I found I could give them pretty darn good answers; maybe I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so atrocious at English. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s was it! Mixing English and theater together: that was my talent. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what that meant at the moment and how it could shape my literary experience, nevertheless it was me, my essence, who I was and who I will be. My mind began to connect situations and events to metaphors and similes.With this, my writing improved with one swift stroke of the pen, and suddenly I had discovered my personal style, my niche. I just had to be myself, and write exactly how pictorial and definitive my thoughts tended to be. Reading and writing concerns had become a thing of the past, and I was ready for a new obstacle. Thus, my senior year I worked tirelessly on a piece of art IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never created before: a script. After months of tedious work, I turned in my bundle of words for a theater competition. Furthermore, to my surprise, it was accepted! In addition, after years of battling depression, the script had turned out to be a comedy. I had carefully foiled each of the characters so that no one was like the other, making it ultimately hilarious.I gathered a company of actors, and directed the show myself; we took it to the stage. Of course there were obstructions: actors getting sick, dropping out, not being able to make rehearsals, props were lost, lights didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work, or the audio tracks broke down. Despite these hindrances, it all lead up to this momentÃ¢â¬ ¦ I stand, in a humid spot light, looking out to the hundreds of tiny faces before me, this time not alone. Their eyes glimmer and seem happy and excited like a pupÃ¢â¬â¢s. Oh, my dear companions. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you,Ã¢â¬ I stated clearly into the metallic microphone, Ã¢â¬Å"I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have done any of this without you.Ã¢â¬ Typical speech, but sincere. I just won an award for best original script, and my actors, sprinkled throughout the audience, barked with enthusiasm for my award. I had done it. I had pushed the limit, through demanding and strenuous times. A notable smile crosses my face; allÃ¢â¬â¢s well that ends well.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
History of the Inca Empire The Inca Empire was the largest prehispanic society of South America when it was discovered by the Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro in the 16th century AD. At its height, the Inca empire controlled all of the western part of the South American continent between Ecuador and Chile. The Inca capital was at Cusco, Peru, and the Inca legends claimed they were descended from the great Tiwanaku civilization at Lake Titicaca. Origins Archaeologist Gordon McEwan has built an extensive study of archaeological, ethnographic, and historical sources of information on the Inca origins. Based on that, he believes that the Inca arose from the remnants of the Wari Empire based at the site of Chokepukio, a regional center built about AD 1000. An influx of refugees from Tiwanaku arrived there from the Lake Titicaca region about AD 1100. McEwan argues that Chokepukio may be the town of Tambo Tocco, reported in Inca legends as the originating town of the Inca and that Cusco was founded from that city. See his 2006 book, The Incas: New Perspectives for more detail on this interesting study. In a 2008 article, Alan Covey argued that although the Inca arose from the Wari and Tiwanaku state roots, they succeeded as an empire- compared to the contemporary ChimÃ º State,Ã because the Inca adapted to regional environments and with local ideologies. The Inca began their expansion from Cusco about 1250 AD or so, and before the conquest in 1532 they controlled a linear stretch of some 4,000 kilometers, including nearly one million square kilometers in area and over 100 different societies in coastal regions, pampas, mountains, and forests. Estimates for the total population under Incan control range between six and nine million persons. Their empire included land in what are the modern countries of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. Architecture and Economics To control such a huge area, the Incas built roads, including both mountainous and coastal routes. One existing fragment of the road between Cusco and the palace of Machu Picchu is called the Inca Trail. The amount of control exercised by Cusco over the rest of the empire varied from place to place, as might be expected for such a huge empire. Tribute paid to the Inca rulers came from farmers of cotton, potatoes, and maize, herders of alpacas and llamas, and craft specialists who made polychrome pottery, brewed beer from maize (called chicha), wove fine wool tapestriesÃ and made wooden, stone, and gold, silver and copper objects. The Inca were organized along a complex hierarchical and hereditary lineage system called the ayllu system. Ayllus ranged in size from a few hundred to tens of thousands of people, and they governed access to such things as land, political roles, marriage, and ritual ceremonies. Among other important duties, ayllus took maintenance and ceremonial roles involving the preservation and care of honored mummies of the ancestors of their communities. The only written records about the Inca that we can read today are documents from the Spanish conquistadors of Francisco Pizarro. Records were kept by the Inca in the form of knotted strings called quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo). The Spanish reported that historical records- particularly the deeds of the rulers- were sung, chanted, and painted on wooden tablets as well. Timeline and Kinglist The Inca word for ruler was capac, or capa, and the next ruler was chosen both by heredity and by marriage lines. All of the capacs were said to be descended from the legendary Ayar siblings (four boys and four girls) who emerged from the cave of Pacaritambo. The first Inca capac,Ã the Ayar sibling Manco Capac, married one of his sisters and foundedÃ Cusco. The ruler at the height of the empire was Inca Yupanqui, who renamed himself Pachacuti (Cataclysm) and ruled between AD 1438-1471. Most scholarly reports list the date of the Inca empire as beginning with Pachacutis rule. High-status women were called coya and how well you could succeed in life depended to a degree on the genealogical claims of both your mother and father. In some cases, this led to sibling marriage, because the strongest connection you could have would be if you were the child of two descendants of Manco Capac. The dynastic king list which follows was reported by the Spanish chroniclers such asÃ BernabÃ © CoboÃ from oral history reports and, to a degree, it is somewhat under debate. Some scholars believe that there was actually a dual kingship, each king ruling half of Cusco; this is a minority viewpoint. Calendrical dates for the reigns of the various kings were established by Spanish chroniclers based on oral histories, but they are clearly miscalculated and so are not included here (some reigns supposedly lasted over 100 years). Dates included below are those forÃ capacsÃ that were personally remembered by the Inca informants to the Spanish. Kings Manco Capac (principal wife his sister Mama Occlo) ca. AD 1200 (foundedÃ Cusco)SinchÃ Roca (principal wife Manco Sapaca)Lloque Ypanqui (p.w. Mama Cora)Mayta Capac (p.w. Mama Tacucaray)Capac YupanquiInca RocaYahuar HuacacViracocha Inca (p.w. Mama Rondocaya)Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (p.w. Mama Anahuarqui, built theÃ CoricanchaÃ andÃ Machu Picchu, reformed Inca society) [ruled AD 1438-1471], royal estates at Pisac,Ã OllantaytamboÃ and Machu PicchuTopa Inca (or Tupac Inca or Topa Inca Yupanqui) (principal wife his sister Mama Occlo, first capac considered supernatural in his lifetime) [AD 1471-1493], royal estates at Chinchero andÃ ChoquequiraoHuayna Capac [AD 1493-1527], royal estates at Quespiwanka and Tombebamba[civil war between Huascar and Atahuallpa 1527]Huascar [AD 1527-1532]Atahuallpa [AD 1532](Inca conquered by Pizarro in 1532)Manco Inca [AD 1533]Paullu Inca Classes of Incan Society The kings of the Inca society were calledÃ capac. Capacs could have multiple wives, and often did. Inca nobility (calledÃ Inka) were mostly hereditary positions, although special persons could be assigned this designation.Ã CuracasÃ were administrative functionaries and bureaucrats. CaciquesÃ were agricultural community leaders, responsible for maintenance of agricultural fields and tribute payment. Most of the society was organized intoÃ ayllus, who were taxed and received domestic goods according to the size of their groups. ChasquiÃ were message runners who were essential to the Inca system of government. Chasqui traveled along theÃ Inca road systemÃ stopping at outposts orÃ tambosÃ andÃ were said to be able to send a message 250 kilometers in one dayÃ and to make the distance from Cusco to Quito (1500 km) within one week. After death, theÃ capac,Ã and his wives (and many of the highest officials) were mummified and kept by his descendants. Important Facts Alternate names:Ã Inca, Inka, Tahuantinsuyu or Tawantinsuyu (the four parts together in Quechua)Population:Ã Estimates widely accepted by Inca scholars range between six and 14 million within an area extending from Colombia to Chile, in 1532 when the Spanish arrived.State language:Ã Inca rulers adopted a form of Quechua for their administrative languageÃ and doing so spread it into outlying areas of their empire, but the Inca incorporated many different cultures and their languages. The Inca called their form of Quechua runasimi or mans speech.Writing system:Ã The Inca apparently kept accounts and perhaps historical information using aÃ quipu, a system of knotted and dyed string; according to the Spanish, the Inca also chanted and sang historical legends and painted wooden tablets.Ethnographic sources:Ã Lots of ethnographic sources are available about the Inca, primarily Spanish military leaders and priests who were interested in conquering the Inca. These texts are var iously useful and often quite biased. Some few examples includeÃ BernabÃ © Cobo, Historia del Nuevo Mundo 1653, and Relacion de las huacas, among many other reports;Ã Garcilaso de la Vega, 1609; Diez Gonzalez Holguin, 1608; anonymous Arte y vocabulario en la lengua general del Peru, 1586; Santo Tomas, 1560; Juan Perez Bocanegra, 1631; Pablo Joseph de Arriaga, 1621; Cristobal de Albornoz, 1582 Economics Intoxicants:Ã Coca, chicha (maizeÃ beer)Markets:Ã A widespread trade network facilitated by open marketsCultivated crops:Ã Cotton, potatoes,Ã maize, quinoaDomesticated animals:Ã Alpaca,Ã llama,Ã guinea pigTributeÃ was paid to Cusco in goods and services; tribute tallies were kept on quipu and an annual census was kept including the number of deaths and birthsLapidary arts:Ã ShellMetallurgy:Ã Silver, copper, tin and to a lesser extent gold were cold-hammered, forged, and air-annealedTextiles:Ã Wool (alpaca andÃ llama) and cottonAgriculture:Ã When necessary in the steep Andean terrain, the Inca built terraces with a gravel base and stepped retaining walls, to drain excess water and allow water flow from the terrace tread to the next terrace downslope. Architecture Construction techniques used by the Inca included fired adobe mud bricks, roughly shaped stones interspersed with mud mortar, and large, finely shaped stones coated with mud and clay finishing. The shaped stone architecture (sometimes called pillow-faced) is among the finest in the world, with large stones sanded into tight jigsaw like patterns. The pillow-faced architecture was reserved for temples, administrative structures and royal residences like Machu Picchu.Many Inca military installations and other public architecture were constructed throughout the empire, at sites such as Farfn (Peru), Qara Qara and Yampara (Bolivia), and Catarpe and Turi (Chile).The Inca RoadÃ (Capaq Ãâan or Gran Ruta Inca) was built connecting the empireÃ and included some 8500 kilometers of major thoroughfare crossing fifteen distinct ecosystems. 30,000 kilometers of subsidiary trails branch off the main road, including the Inca Trail, which is the part that leads from Cusco to Machu Picchu. Religion Ceque system: a system of shrines and ritual pathways radiating out from the capital city of Cusco. Emphasis on ancestor worship and fictive kinship structures (ayllus).Capacocha ceremony: a state event that involved the sacrifice of objects, animals and sometimes children.Burials:Ã The Inca dead were mummified and placed in open sepulchers so that they could be disinterred for important annual ceremonies and other rituals.Temples/shrinesÃ known as huacas included both built and natural structures Sources: Adelaar, W. F. H.2006Ã Quechua. InÃ Encyclopedia of Language Linguistics. Pp. 314-315. London: Elsevier Press.Covey, R. A. 2008Ã Multiregional Perspectives on the Archaeology of the Andes During the Late Intermediate Period (c. A.D. 1000Ã¢â¬â1400).Ã Journal of Archaeological ResearchÃ 16:287Ã¢â¬â338.Kuznar, Lawrence A. 1999 The Inca Empire: Detailing the complexities of core/periphery interactions. Pp. 224-240 inÃ World-Systems Theory in Practice: Leadership, production, and exchange, edited by P. Nick Kardulias. Rowan and Littlefield: Landham.McEwan, Gordon. 2006Ã The Incas: New Perspectives.Ã Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Online book. Accessed May 3, 2008.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Between a Rock And a Hard Place - Essay Example Spillover vice is a problem in the community, with drugs and sex attracting rich white people into the area. The women consider this an insult and a hypocrisy, because rich people do not want to live in the area because of the resident blacks, although they provide the incentive for the proliferation of vice and crime in the area. Children are in particular danger, and the mothers exert extreme effort in watching their children and keeping them off the violence in the streets, and from being recruited by criminal gangs. Some have died protecting their children from armed goons. Maintaining vigilance often meant constantly staying indoors; therefore, women who find themselves in this position seldom could go to work, much less pursue a career. Their constant stress and watchfulness takes it toll on their health and the health of their children. Among those parents who had jobs, one in every four stressed that they did not have sick leaves available in order to take care of their sick children (Heymann, Earle & Egleston, 1996).